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Tekst 2

Feedback:

This art is bananas

1 Science and art are two separate cultures, said the novelist C. Snow, lamenting how few artists had ever heard of the laws of thermodynamics compared with how many scientists knew Shakespeare. He dreamed of a world where everybody took equal interest in both, which sounds great in principle, but terrible if you have standing tickets at London's Globe theatre for a 3-hour lecture on entropy. Things are marginally better today, if only because nobody in either culture has heard of C. Snow, and so this tiresome debate has quietly heat-deathed itself into oblivion.2 A renewal of hostilities between the cultures recently caught Feedback's attention, however, and well and truly got our dander up. A few weeks ago, artist Maurizio Cattelan took the world by storm by taping a single banana to a wall at the Art Basel show in Miami Beach, Florida, and selling the resulting installation, called Comedian, for $120,000. As art largely consists of communication by means other than speech, the resulting wall-to-banana-flavoured- wall coverage was undoubtedly a success.3 To wit, the Twitter account of Imperial College London, an institution of higher learning devoted almost exclusively to science and engineering soon entered the debate. In a series of tweets 3 , it posted pictures of bananas affixed to various on-campus surfaces with the message 'spot the art'.4 Given that the original banana was able to defy the laws of gravity with the help of highly engineered material adhesives, we disagree with Imperial's assessment. If anything, the original work was science. Stick that in Magritte's pipe and smoke it.

adapted from New Scientist, 2020

Tekst 3

THE ETHICIST

question from Jayn Line, Cincinnati,

As a business owner, I sometimes take customersout to lunch. But as an ethical vegan, I don't wantto subsidize the cruel meat and dairy industries.People seem to take my veganism as an affrontto their lifestyle. Is there a way that I can, withoutlosing customers, let them know I just can'tunderwrite killing animals?

answer by Kwame Anthony Appiah

First, let's consider a practical matter. The person picking up the tabordinarily gets to choose the place to eat. If there are vegan restaurants inyour area, you can take your customers there. 4-

Second, let's consider the consequences of your lunch order. Yourpractice of eschewing animal products might have some impact on thenumber of animals that suffer, at least over the course of a lifetime, byreducing demand for those products. On the other hand, not paying forothers to consume meat on a few occasions probably doesn't have anysuch effect. 4-

Third, though, let's consider the nature of your commitments. You wonderthat people take your veganism as "an affront to their lifestyle." Shouldn'tthey? Your guests would surely be right that you think they're in thewrong: It's what ethical veganism entails. Why aren't you interested indefending your veganism? No doubt you'll want to take into account thepossibility that you'll lose business. But ethical veganism isn't a personalpreference, and it isn't confined to a concern for your personal virtue; itaims to reduce harm to animals, even to challenge the idea that animalsbe treated as property. 4-

adapted from The New York Times Magazine, 2019

Tekst 5

Does the Age of Your Doctor Matter?

1 To the Editor:I agree with Dr. Haider Javed Warraich (“For Doctors,Age May Be More Than a Number,” by Sunday Review,Jan. 7): young doctors have many good qualities thathave nothing to do with age, for better or worse, butwhen he writes that “nothing is more reassuring topatients than seeing a silver-haired doctor walk up totheir bedside,” I have to disagree.To the contrary, seeing a silver-haired doctor walk up tomy bedside could give me plenty of concern about hisexperience with modern techniques and recent medicalresearch.FIONA BAYLY, NEW YORK

2 To the Editor:Haider Javed Warraich correctly identifies the worst of old-school medicalpractice: arrogant doctors who rely on anecdotal experience. As apsychiatrist and a medical school clinical faculty member for 30 years, Ihave learned a lot from my students. They are dedicated to social justice,attentive to language and more aware of policy, ethics and socialdeterminants of health.What they struggle with, however, and what remains an area poorlyaddressed in their training is the more nuanced interpersonal domain. Iftradition blinds older doctors, ideology can blind younger ones.Holding impeccable values does not help them engage authentically, withhonest, insightful emotional awareness. Needing to understand anindividual patient requires more than machine-learning, big data, politicalcorrectness or treatment algorithms.Psychological depth may be the real new frontier of sound medical care. Itcan also reduce error, burnout and patient dissatisfaction.SARAH HARTLEY, OAKLAND, CALIF.

New York Times, 2018

Tekst 6

Weight loss celebs

1 On April Fools' Day, let us reflect quickly on this century's biggest prank, the celebrity weight loss DVD. It was just after Scarlett Moffatt (of Gogglebox and I'm a Celebrity fame) had signed a six-figure contract to star in her first DVD, that a friend told me about one of its conditions. Not only was Moffatt contractually obliged to lose the usual literal wheelbarrow of weight (she went from a size 18 to a size 8 in a matter of months), but for a year after the DVD's release she had to keep the 3 stone off and endure regular weigh-ins, or pay back the cash. Though I was well aware of the dark machinations of the weight loss industry, I wasn't prepared for the starkness of the paperwork.

2 The sticky story of Moffatt's DVD is rumbling through the tabloids at the moment as a friend's (inverted commas) text messages confirm that, rather than losing weight simply through the exercise routines on the tape, she visited a Swiss bootcamp where she was made to train for six hours a day, eating a maximum of 700 calories. After she was branded 'fake' over claims the DVD showed an "unrealistic portrayal of how she lost weight" (a jarring accusation for a person whose career is based on her honesty and her humanness), a personal trainer came forward revealing similar stories about Moffatt's fellow reality stars, Geordie Shore's Vicky Pattison and Towie's Lauren Goodger, explaining that it's standard protocol for him to move in with the reality star for the duration of the project, cooking their food as well as keeping them fit. Both Pattison and Goodger received a lot of money for their DVDs (Pattison is rumoured to have been paid £160,000), and both also visited a series of secret fitness bootcamps, starting starvation diets before filming. All have offered regrets. All have since put on weight.

3 I interviewed Goodger about body image in 2012, having counted 546 Mail Online headlines about her yo-yoing body. We sat in a corner of Max Clifford's office, and she told me how odd it felt when scrutiny of your weight becomes your career, talking quietly about anorexia in her family, and the conflict she felt when her little sister complimented her on her weight loss. Against more Mail Online headlines (detailing her liposuction) she then went on to release her bestselling DVD. "I tried everything for years to lose weight but nothing worked. Now this system has done it for me." lt hadn't.

Tekst 7

Teaching ‘grit’ is bad for children, and bad for democracy

adapted from an article by Nicholas Tampio

1 According to the grit narrative, children in the United States are lazy, entitled and unprepared to compete in the global economy. Schools have contributed to the problem by neglecting socio-emotional skills. The solution, then, is for schools to impart the dispositions that enable American children to succeed in college and careers. According to this story, politicians, policymakers, corporate executives and parents agree that kids need more grit.

2 The person who has arguably done more than anyone else to elevate the concept of grit in academic conversations is Angela Duckworth, professor at the Positive Psychology Center at the University of Pennsylvania. In her new book, Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance, she explains the concept of grit and how people can cultivate it in themselves and others.

3 According to Duckworth, grit is the ability to overcome any obstacle in pursuit of a long-term project: 'To be gritty is to hold fast to an interesting and purposeful goal. To be gritty is to invest, day after week after year, in challenging practice. To be gritty is to fall down seven times and rise eight.' Duckworth names musicians, athletes, coaches, academics and business people who succeed because of grit. Her book will be 15 for policymakers who want schools to inculcate and measure grit. There is a time and place for grit. However, praising grit as such makes no sense because it can often lead to stupid or mean behaviour. Duckworth's book is filled with gritty people doing things that they perhaps shouldn't.

4 Take Martin Seligman, the founder of positive psychology and Duckworth's graduate school mentor. In a 1967 article, Seligman and his co-author describe a series of experiments on dogs. The first day, the dogs were placed in a harness and administered electrical shocks. One group could stop the shocks if they pressed their nose against a panel, and the other group could not. The next day, all of the dogs were placed in a shuttle box and again administered shocks that the dogs could stop by jumping over a barrier. Most of the dogs who could stop the shocks the first day jumped over the barrier, while most of the dogs who suffered inescapable shocks did not try, though a few did. Duckworth reflects upon this story and her own challenges in a college course in neurobiology. She

decides that she passed the course because she would 'be like the fewdogs who, despite recent memories of uncontrollable pain, held fast tohope'. Duckworth would be like one of the dogs that got up and keptfighting.

5 At no point, however, does Duckworth express concern that many of the animals in Seligman's study died or became ill shortly thereafter. Duckworth acknowledges the possibility that there might be 'grit villains' but dismisses this concern because 'there are many more gritty heroes'. There is no reason to assume this, and it oversimplifies the moral universe to maintain that one has to be a 'grit villain' to thoughtlessly harm people.

6 A second grit paragon in Duckworth's book is Pete Carroll, the Super Bowl-winning coach of the Seattle Seahawks American football team. Carroll has created a culture of grit where assistant coaches chant: 'No whining. No complaining. No excuses.' She also commends Seahawk defensive back Earl Thomas for playing with 'marvellous intensity'. Duckworth has apparently not read any of the articles or seen any of the movies or television programmes detailing the long-term harm caused by playing professional football. President Barack Obama, among others, has said that he would not want a son, if he had one, to play football. Duckworth might have talked with football players who suffer from traumatic brain injuries.

7 Why don't these people ever stop to reflect on what they are doing? We should not celebrate the fact that 'paragons of grit don't swap compasses', as Duckworth puts it in her book. That might signal a moral failing on their part. The opposite of grit, often enough, is contemplating, wondering, asking questions, and refusing to push a boulder up a hill.

8 Right now, many Americans want the next generation to be gritty. 19 , school districts in California are using modified versions of Duckworth's Grit Survey to hold schools and teachers accountable for how well children demonstrate 'self-management skills'. Duckworth herself opposes grading schools on grit because the measurement tools are unreliable. But that stance overlooks the larger problem of how a grit culture contributes to an authoritarian politics, one where leaders expect the masses to stay on task.

9 Democracy requires active citizens who reason for themselves and, often enough, challenge authority. Ordinary people who demand a say in how they are governed. Duckworth celebrates educational models that weed out people who don't obey orders. That is a disastrous model for education in a democracy. US schools ought to protect dreamers, inventors, rebels and entrepreneurs ─ not crush them in the name of grit.

aeon, 2016

religiously while others have no access to them and have to rely on wordof mouth.

5 The question that Touboul investigates is under what circ*mstances hipsters become synchronized and how this varies as the propagation delay and the proportion of hipsters both change. He does this by creating a computer model that simulates how agents interact when some follow the majority and the rest oppose it. This simple model generates some fantastically complex behaviors. In general, Touboul says, the population of hipsters initially act randomly but then undergo a phase transition into a synchronized state. He finds that this happens for a wide range of parameters.

6 It can be objected that the synchronization stems from the simplicity of scenarios offering a binary choice. "For example, if a majority of individuals shave their beard, then most hipsters will want to grow a beard, and if this trend propagates to a majority of the population, it will lead to a new, synchronized, switch to shaving," says Touboul. It's easy to imagine a different outcome if there are more choices. If hipsters could grow a mustache, a square beard, or a goatee, for example, then perhaps this diversity of choice would prevent synchronization. But Touboul has found that when his model offers more than two choices, it still produces the synchronization effect.

7 Hipsters are an easy target for a bit of fun, but the results have much wider applicability. For example, they could be useful for understanding financial systems in which speculators attempt to make money by taking decisions that oppose the majority in a stock exchange. 27 , there are many areas in which delays in the propagation of information play an important role. As Touboul puts it: "Beyond the choice of the best suit to wear this winter, this study may have important implications in understanding synchronization of nerve cells, investment strategies in finance, or emergent dynamics in social science."

adapted from technologyreview, 2019

Tekst 9

The future of diversity

adapted from an article by Andray Domise

1 LAST SUMMER, a friend of mine, a personal trainer whose success on Instagram has landed him magazine coverage, stopped by a juice bar in a leafy midtown Toronto neighbourhood. An ardent vegan, he'd gone there before to sample its wide selection of cold-pressed, organic juices. When he stepped through the doors, though, the woman who worked there greeted him with "you are the delivery man from Uber Eats?" My friend doesn't believe she was intentional in her racism; he didn't take his story to social media or demand an apology from the shop's management. But he did mention his experience where he knew he would be understood: his Black social circles.

2 In our polarized times, openly sharing our own lived realities often triggers a backlash from those who would rather shout us into silence than listen. Wading into the grey areas of race and racism can easily harm us. And in the face of white people's profound desire not to be seen as they are, there is no future for a truly collective 'dialogue on race.' We have the dialogue within Black communities, and we often do with other communities of colour as well. But when it comes to white folks, 29

3 Consider recent instances when Black people in public positions have called out racism and have themselves become targets for condemnation, shifting focus away from the behaviour they've pointed out. After CTV host Marci Ien published an article in The Globe and Mail about her repeated traffic stops by Toronto police (a phenomenon sometimes known as 'driving while Black'), Staff Superintendent Mario Di Tommaso tweeted that Ien's race "was not visible" on a video of one of the stops. Several high-ranking current and former officers called Ien's credibility into question; one even brought up a 2005 interview in which she confessed

Tekst 10

The following text is the beginning of Darke, a novel written by RickGekoski and first published in 2017.

I wasn't sure of the right word. Builder? Odd-job man? Repairman? Or perhaps I needed tosee a specialist? Carpenter? Joiner?Woodworker?5 I looked at the keyboard intently, as if theletters could Ouija themselves up, and revealthe answer.Handyman? I typed it into Google andadded my postcode, hope congealing in my10 heart. Most builders, handy or otherwise, areincompetent, indolent and venal.I will not pay unless the job is doneperfectly, on time and within estimate. I donot provide endless cups of PG Tips with15 three sugars, ta, nor do I engage in talk, smallor large. Preferably no visits to my WC,though a builder who does not pee is rare.Tea makes pee. But if that is necessary, only in the downstairs cloakroom.Afterwards there will be piss under the loo.20 I also wanted one who is taciturn. I loathe the inane chatter ofworkmen hoping to ingratiate themselves while simultaneously paddingtheir bills. A handyman who cannot talk? Bliss. Somebody should set up acompany that supplies them. Tear out their tongues or sew up their lips,that'd do it.25 I added taciturn to my search options, but unsurprisingly nothingturned up, though one chap described himself as 'tactile' which gave methe creeps. I tried various alternatives: Quiet? Nothing. Unobtrusive?Chance would be a fine thing. I eventually opted for Thoughtful, whichprovided two alternatives: one pictured in a string vest, who I suspect30 offers a variety of distinctly odd jobs, the other with a fewrecommendations affixed to his entry, which lauded reliable service.Mr Cooper, he is called, but I did not ring him, as that would provideevidence that I can hear, whereas I intended to feign almost totaldeafness. I emailed him, enquiring if he might be available next week. He35 responded immediately, which is a bad sign: shouldn't he be out handy-manning his way around town?Yes, he replied, he was free next Wednesday and Thursday. What canhe do for me?My requirements for Mr Cooper concern the entry to my house, which40 has a handsome Georgian door, which will need to be removed and'amended' ─ I believe this might be the right term ─ in five ways:

(1) Remove the brass letter box, then fill in the resultant hole, prep andpaint in Farrow and Ball Pitch Black gloss. (There are a variety of blacks,some of them greatly preferable to others, and black is one of the few45 colours (or absence of colours) in which doors should properly be painted.One of our neighbours, a recently arrived Indian family, decorated theirsin a Hindu orange so offensive, so out of keeping with the tone of the restof the street that a petition was discreetly and anonymously raised by'Your Neighbours' (guilty as charged) asking him and his wife to50 reconsider. They did, and repainted it bright turquoise.)(2) Install a doorbell that rings once only, no matter how many times youpress it, and which issues a melodious, inoffensive tone which can beheard clearly inside the house, but not outside the door.(3) Install a Dia16mm-x-200-Degree-Brass-Door-Viewer-Peephole-with-55 Cover-and-Glass-Lens, which I will provide.(4) Install a new keyhole and change lock.(5) Remove the brass door-knocker, and make good.

The jobs I have outlined will take a day and a half, according toMr Cooper, 'unless something goes wrong', plus an extra visit to put on60 a second coat of gloss. Mr Cooper's hourly charge is £35, plus materials,which, when I compare it to others offering similar services (thoughwithout the extra thoughtfulness), is pretty much standard.

Tekst 12

"Who that benefits is of no interest to me" (Robert Jenrick says he regretsdining with donor before planning decision, 22 July). It is deeplydepressing, though not in the least surprising, that a Conservativehousing minister would see a decision whether money should go to amillionaire developer and Tory donor, or to one of the most deprivedcommunities in the country, as 39. It speaks volumes of the ethos ofthe modern Conservative party and why they are unfit to govern.

Jeremy CushingExeter

theguardian, 2020

Tekst 13

Lees eerst de opgave voordat je naar de tekst gaat.

Education in Australia: a race to the Finnish

LETTERS

Only two countries in the world, Chile and Belgium, spend as muchgovernment money on private schools as we do. Finnish professor PasiSahlberg of Harvard University and former Director-General of CIMO(Centre for International Mobility and Cooperation) at Finland's Ministry ofEducation and Culture has repeatedly explained Finland's success atgoing from one of the world's poorer performing countries to the Westernworld's best. He says they focused on the neediest schools and didn'tworry about the best. And, they have no private funding of schools. This isalmost exactly the opposite of what Australia does.Brenton White Mosman

How refreshing to read William Doyle's article ("Why Finland has the bestschools" March 26) where "Educators are the ultimate authorities oneducation, not bureaucrats, and not technology vendors". Doyle, aFulbright scholar and university lecturer, says: "Finland has a history ofproducing the highest global test scores in the Western world ... includingthe most literate nation". It's about time that our politicians stopped blaming young teacherswho are "not up to scratch" for our falling standards. Like Finland we dohave highly trained teachers with Master's degrees but they are notvalued, financially or professionally. Where is the funding for improved teacher qualifications, ongoingprofessional development, classroom support for special education needsand playground monitors? The rest of the world knows that you don't needa Master's degree to supervise the playground but it's helpful to be aneffective teacher. The classrooms of the top performers according to yourstory "Marked Down: the education system that's failing us" (March 26) –Shanghai, Singapore, Hong Kong – differ greatly from our multiculturalclasses where we cater for individual differences without adequatesupport. Where is the research to explain what is needed to bring us up tothe Finnish model?Anne Morrison Paddington

Twelve paragraphs into the latest mawkish paean to Finland's educationsystem, we finally reach the nub of the matter. In an aside, we areinformed that class sizes in Finland are "manageable". In fact, class sizesin Finland are capped at far lower levels than that of most otherdeveloped countries, a crucial factor which is routinely ignored ordownplayed in depictions of Finland as an educational paradise. Perhaps

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