A security of this type may a fixed charge or floating charge or a combination of both. A fixed charge relates to and attaches to specific identifiable property such as plant or equipment. It can apply to property not yet owned by the borrower, or property which is not yet in existence. A fixed charge can be in the form of a legal mortgage or an equitable mortgage or an equitable charge. The floating charge does not attach to any particular assets of the borrower, but floats over assets or property which may be constantly changing, such as trading stock. A floating charge is an equitable charge and if there is a default, the floating charge crystallises to a fixed charge over assets of the borrower. A floating charge includes all the property of the company, including trading stock, detours and other property employed in a day today basis in the business. Fixed assets such as office premises may be under a specific Orphic security. It covers present and future assets including some of the assets which may change over time and it gives the company virtually complete freedom to deal with the assets covered by the floating charge within the limits of the document creating it until one of a number of possible events has occurred where the charge crystallises. This type of security gives flexibility to the per. In contrast, a borrower with a mortgage may have to get the lender’s approval to train a particular item of equipment under the specific should tell mortgage or goods mortgage.
When something occurs to breach the terms on which the charges given, the charge crystallises to a fixed charge. This revokes the agreement which the creditor had from the debt to deal with the assets under the floating charge in the ordinary course of business. For example, the floating charge crystallises when the parties are provided for crystallisation if a specific event happens such as a default by the borrower in payment or the borrower allowing the value of the charged assets to fall below a minimum amount. Crystallisation can also occur if you receiver is appointed or if the Dettol breach is a restriction on future borrowings. If the parties have not provided for crystallisation, the floating charge will crystallise automatically if he lender can appoint a receiver or go into possession on default by the borrower. There may be problems with automatic crystallisation as neither party may be aware of it, both the borrower and the lender may continue as if the charge is still floating including disposing of assets to third parties. If there is insolvency, there may not be enough property to meet liabilities. In terms of the priorities of these types of security, if a borrower grants a floating charge and later grants and other charge over the same property, the priorities are in line with the general law which means that where there are equal securities, the first time will prevail. A legal charge takes priority over an earlier equitable charge. A later fix charge takes priority over an earlier floating charge and where there are two securities one registered on unregistered, registered security will take priority over the unregistered security.